Globalization And Third World Countries
Globalization an Advance Guise of Western Imperialism
Globalization is an extended and complex phenomenon of the twenty-first century. It is a word that encompasses the entire world into an integrated and interdependent body of different units. The very thesis of the theory is that due to the rapid communication and the pace of economic transformation the world has dramatically changed into a global village. Where in one part of the world an event in society has abrupt and far cry consequences on the other part of the world. In hindsight, a cosmopolitan culture, free-market economy, trade and business, easy transformation of goods and people, global polity, common threats and concerns of humanity, rapid transportation has changed human society. It also has enormous impacts on the culture, economy, and politics of those societies which are politically dependent, educationally deprived, technically less skilled, and economically crippled. They don’t have easy access to modern and advanced technologies. And that’s why despite all the efforts of the developing countries they are maltreated and exploited by the developed states.
Some scholars trace the origin of globalization to the third century BC. Others argue that globalization had matured in the journey of Europe towards science and reason in the thirteenth century, however, the fact is that until 1820 the globalization was not considered as something more or less to be seen in the future. Although the term globalization is created in the 1970s the movement extensively was on its way to mark history in the mid of nineteenth century. European ideas and values were widely acknowledged as the leading beacons for humanity. The political doctrine of popular government and political rights extended to every nook and corner of the world. With that, the industrial revolution also paved way for the urbanization. The population growth had sustained the demand for commodities. Daily standard commodities were produced and enormously exported out of the country. After the Napoleonic wars, Europe was now stabled and the cost of transportation was also substantially reduced resultantly shared values and a connected era has begun. The transport revolution eased not only the transported commodities but also imported religions, social values, different philosophies, and cultures. Scholars argue that between 1970 and 1915 the world was more integrated due to the steamships and other technological means of transportation such as railroads. However, with the outbreak of world war, protectionism and the great depression highly fenced the wave of globalization. Immediately after the Second World War US endeavor towards a global economic market end up again the world on a track to globalization. World trade organization was formed for the negotiating and formulizing of trade agreements. Many bilateral trade organizations were made between different countries and trade quota and tariffs were curtailed for efficient and smooth trading.
By the 1980s modern globalization spread rapidly as capitalism and neoliberal ideologies were expanded. These neoliberal policies privatize public industry and allowed free trade and giant multinational corporations. Due to these programs, IMF and World Bank become global financial market regulators that would promote neoliberalism and the creation of free markets for multinational corporations on a global scale.
In the 1960s to some scholars globalization was merely a buzzword but now denying this very phenomenon has become improbable. This century has been named a global era where the people of the world are intensively connected through the internet as well as popular media. Cheap and fast communication too has altered the lifestyle of the people around the world ending them up in an all-time connected zone. A text message or any other voice note can be sent to the other end of the world is merely a fraction of seconds. The integrated economies and interdependency in almost all aspects of life shaped a global system where no state can live isolated from the rest of the world. Every state seeks the support of other states in the uplift of their social sector or any other area. Humanity is now united against common diseases and other global problems such as climate change. The free financial flows and trade coupled with economic interdependency have made the stateless and less independent and they cannot control their economies. Alongside a global culture is emerging and people are well aware of the shrinkage of the world.
If we observe the globe we will see that globalization is taking place in multi spheres of human life such as economic, cultural, and political. Economically the world is shrinking. There are emerging free trade zones where taxes, tariffs, quotas, and other trade impediments are reduced for the free flow of goods, people, technology, and capital. In concurrent with that multinational organizations are also causing this economic integration by freely producing capital in other than their home countries. This economic interdependence is leading towards a world marketplace.
Also, cultural globalization is rapidly taking place due to the cross-border ease in transportations, tourism, and cultural exchange programs. To intensify social relations, the ideas, values, meanings, and religions are transmitted in the nook and corner of the world. Music, lifestyle, technologies, and languages, etc, are diffused with the pace of rapid transportations. Which consequently has given birth to global culture. Much of it is emanating from Hollywood and has enormously altered social values. Cultural exchange programs and tourism is promoting cultural values in other countries. This as well is causing a global culture which is very much there in the urban areas of the world.
Beside them, there is this political globalization. It is the worldwide growth of a political system. A system that is adapted by the majority of countries. This includes governmental, intergovernmental, and international non-governmental organizations and social moments. World politics is so integrated and has become so linked between the states that an event taking place in one part of the country has immediate impacts on international politics. Social organizations activate and respond to the events taking place far from them. A global polity has been forming by transnational social and political movements and there is this transfer of allegiance taking place from state to sub-state, transnational and international bodies.
Now there are more than two hundred units over the globe. They all are separate and closed border political units. Despite the fact of globalization those units promptly claim their absolute sovereignty and authority over their respective boundaries. The world is divided between developing and developed states. The developed states are most advanced in technology, science and have perfectly established social and economic sectors. They have a stable political system, running on the popular mandate. They have peace and prosperity in their countries. While on the other hand this long-held colonial states. Who were under foreign Powers. They have been exploited and left unstable both politically and economically. The process of globalization poses challenges to these developing parts of the world.
Economically globalization has a great impact on third-world countries. Globalization has enormously reduced the trade barriers across the globe so multinational companies can easily set up their operations in developing countries. When any multinational corporations start, it’s working in a third-world country. It brings money and employment to the country but it also competes with the natural companies of the concerned country, resultantly the domestic industry falls due to the inefficient organization. It also gives birth to unemployment as most of the skilled labor can easily immigrate to the developed world for high wages and the third world country industry crashes due to the lack of labor. Alongside the agriculture sector has been neglected for past few years and the people in the developing countries have been seen more interested in the manufacturing sector. It too has resulted in the fall of the agriculture sector in most of the agrarian countries which in turn negatively impacts the GDP of the country. Globalization has also bolstered urbanization. In most third-world countries, the rural areas have been outrightly neglected for the sheer development of urban areas. Concurrently, inequality between the poor and rich has also been increased by capitalism which is the very soul of economic globalization. Natural resources of the developing countries have also been exploited by the multinational corporations of the foreign wealthy states insofar as that the forest of the developing world has been deforesting to sell the woods on the developed world.
Globally the pace of rapid communication has changed the politics of one nation the concern of others. Also over the last few decades, it is seen, the rise of influence of international and regional institutions such as the European Union (EU), United Nations (UN), World Trade Organization (WTO), and Association for the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). This international organization increasingly shapes domestic politics. Consequently, the big countries have more say in the decisions of international organizations such as the United Nations Security Council while the third world countries are left behind. No state can shape its foreign as well as national policy without considering the international order and the international market. Most of the third world countries have not functional democracy and that’s why the inept leadership has the sole monopoly over the power. Illiteracy and lack of advanced technologies have plunged third-world countries into their miserable condition. Globalization has also made ease in the warfare and the third world countries have many times used it as a tool against state and non-state actors alike in Pakistan in the Afghan war etc.
Cultural globalization also poses several challenges to the developing world as the first-world countries are imposing their trends of lifestyle. The danger of cultural homogenization is one of the cons of cultural globalization. In third world countries, many cultures are losing their distinct features as the western culture marches on. Westernization and cultural imperialism of the western world has been considered fatal for the developing world’s cultures by many scholars.
Like other developing countries globalization has also both positive and negative repercussions on Pakistan. It has greatly affected the economy, culture, politics, laws, and religion of Pakistan. Every society in the world is recognized by its distinct values. Pakistan has a rich and unique culture. The cultural dress of men of Pakistan is shalwar and kameez. T-shirts, jeans, long shoes, and sunglasses are not a part of Pakistani culture. Cultural globalization has impacted women’s dress as well. The trend of wearing western clothes like jeans and paints is increasing in women. As a result of food globalization Pakistani food has been thrown to the back as KFC, MC Donald’s, Pizza hut can be easily reached in the nook and corner of the country. The cultural music of Pakistan like ghazal gayaki and qawwali has also been haunted by western music. Also, as a result of globalization, Pakistan is facing domestic religious pressures as Islamization and globalization are two different theories. Economically Pakistan is shambled and can’t benefit from economic globalization due to its immense rely on the IMF and World Bank aid. Being an agrarian country it is also left behind agriculturally with the pace of higher interest of the people in the manufacturing sector.
In this global era, it is highly recommended for all the developing states to benefit from the free market economy by reducing trade impediments such as tariffs, taxes, quota, etc. for coping the global era it is also imperative to educate the new generations and provide them with technical skill opportunities. Without technological advancement, no nation can make a place in the developed world. The strengthening of democratic norms and values is also very necessary for uplifting the country within the neoliberal ideological countries. Most of the third world countries are agrarian and they have not tackled their agriculture sector as efficiently as they should. In concurrent with that the film and music industry should also be paid with due heed as it can also play a great role in the national economy. Cultural manifestations in every sphere of life also are performed for surveillance of a country’s culture and identity. Laws and religions should be protected against western cultural imperialism. The developing countries must have to reexamine their political system.
In this era where the rapid communication and free and fast transportation has enormously altered the world into a more and more integrated unit. The developing world needs to be aware of the challenges that globalization poses to them. They need to benefit as much as one could get from globalization’s pros and avoid the corns. The challenges that are posed to the developing world are mainly economic political and cultural.